Part 1 of Chemical Anarchy
CHEMICALS AND GASES
The police are really uptight about the recent rise in demonstrations and unrest. They have spent incredible amounts of money developing all types of weapons for control. They have a machine that can be driven into a riot area and in a matter of minutes fill a ten-block area, four feet deep, with a nontoxic coloured foam. The foam will prevent movement on the part of the demonstrators, and the colour will identify them later for arrest. The police have also developed an even more frightening weapon. It consists of a truck with a loudspeaker on the top which can be driven into the riot area. A high-pitched sound, like a silent dog whistle, is broadcast from it. This high-pitched sound cannot be heard, but it manages to jumble the brain and render the individual helpless - unable to move or think. Although it's not permanent, it's still pretty frightening. The field which these police scientists have made the most headway is with chemicals and gases. They have not stuck to non-toxic chemicals, but are using gases that permanently maim people. The redeeming feature is that these gases are not hard to make, and are available to everyone, although their possession in most places is illegal.
The most simple chemical agent is either common pepper or mustard powder. Both work pretty well at close range. If they are thrown into the eyes, or inhaled through the nose, they will cause confusion, temporary blindness, and an extreme burning sensation in the nasal passages. The major disadvantage of pepper or mustard powder is the manner in which they are projected and in the following article is a method to produce an effective tear gas, which will act much more efficiently than either pepper or mustard. Many places have made tear gas illegal to possess, but a form of pepper gas is still available in small pen-like containers.
The method of making tear gas is so simple that anyone can do it. The two main things to remember are care and caution. You will need a certain amount of equipment but, just like the chemicals, it is available from any hobby shop, or home chemical supplier. If you don't already own a gas mask, go out and get one.
Listed below are the materials necessary:
- Ring Stand
- Alcohol Lamp
- Flask (300-ml)
- Rubber Stopper
- Glass Tubing
- Clamp Holder
- Rubber Tubing
- Rubber Tubing
- Ring Stand
- Clamp Clamp Holder
- Rubber Tubing
- Rubber Tubing
- Glass Tubing
- Rubber Stopper
- Collecting Bottle
- Glass tubing
- Rubber Tubing
- Glass Tubing
- Rubber Tubing
- Air Trap Bottle
- Glass Tubing
- Rubber Tubing
- Glass Tubing
- Beaker (300-ml)
Method for preparing Tear Gas:
- Work in a garage, or outside if possible - not in your kitchen, you need proper ventilation in case anything goes wrong.
- Mix ten parts of Glycerine with two parts of Sodium Bisulfate, in Flask (No.3) and heat. Do not fill more than one-third of the flask, as mixture froths when heated. When the froth begins, adjust heat.
- As soon as you see no more tear gas being generated, and solids beginning to be formed in the generating flask (No.3), or a brown residue in the tube (No.6), remove the heat source, with your mask on, and pour out the residue in the flask outside. Do not pour down the sink or toilet.
- Remove collecting jar (No.17) and stopper it quickly. What you have collected here is tear gas.
- Do not attempt to make more than three ounces at one time.
- Make sure all joints are tight.
Method to set up equipment:
- Metal Base Ring Stands (1 and 11) are placed on the Working Surface.
- Clamp and Clamp Holder (4 and 7) are placed onto Ring Stand (1)
- Clamp and Clamp Holder (12) are placed on Ring Stand (11)
- Generating flask (3) is placed in clamp (4)
- Two pieces of Rubber Tubing (10 and 13) are connected to the Condenser (9)
- Condenser (9) is placed into Clamp (12)
- Segment of Glass Tubing (6) is placed in a rubber stopper (5)
- Segments of Glass Tubing (15 and 18) are put into Rubber Stopper (16)
- Segments of Glass Tubing (20 and 23) are put into Rubber Stopper (21)
- Rubber Stopper (5) is put into the mouth of the Generating Flask (3)
- Rubber Stopper (16) is put into the mouth of Collecting Bottle (17)
- Rubber Stopper (21) is put into the mouth of Air Trap Bottle (22)
- Connects Glass Tubing (6) with Condenser (9) and with Rubber Tubing (8)
- Connect Condenser (9) with glass tubing (15) and with Rubber Tubing (14)
- Connect Glass Tubing (18) with Glass Tubing (20) and Rubber Tubing (19)
- Connect Glass Tubing (23) with Glass Tubing (24) and Rubber Tubing (24)
- Connect Rubber Tubing (13) to a Faucet
- Put the end of Rubber Tubing (10) into a sink or drain
- Fill Beaker (26) three-quarters full of water, and place Glass Tubing (25) in the water.
- Put Ingredients into the Generating Flask (3)
- Turn on the water to Rubber Tubing (13)
- Light Wick on Alcohol Heater (2) and place under Generating Flask (3)
The best method for putting tear gas into operation is to place it under pressure in a glass vial or bottle. Then throw the bottle at the target you have in mind. The glass will break on contact and allow the tear gas to escape. Other successful methods have been proven, including compressing an atomizer, aerosol can, or seltzer bottles and the like.
DEFENSE AND MEDICAL TREATMENT FOR GASES
The problem with gas (offensively) is that it is so easy to defend against, and chances are very good that the people you intend to use it against are prepared for it. At this point in the struggle, any urban or rural guerrilla should have a mask. Everyone should understand the simple procedures for the treatment of a gas victim. Everyone should be able to identify the type of gas being used against them, so as to determine the type of treatment and the seriousness of the situation. These are five different types of gases used by police at this point, and the effective forms of defence vary.
A defence for one may cause more severe effects when used against another. such is the case with vaseline. Vaseline works well against mace, since mace is a liquid, but it causes gases to adhere to the skin and thus results in more serious burns. Police have been using canisters that do not explode on contact with the ground, but rather when picked up after the initial impact. This causes the gas to explode directly in the individual's face. Whereas a rubber gas mask is good protection against most types of gases, it is ineffective and even dangerous if worn when nausea gas has been used. Wet paper towels and surgical masks can be used to ease breathing problems but are also ineffective against nausea gas. So the most important consideration before treating a gas or chemical victim is to determine the type of gas or chemical used.
CS Tear Gas: This gas is dispensed in various-sized canisters, plastic grenades, and fog machines, and can be sprayed over an entire area from a helicopter. When you are hit with this type of gas, you will suffer coughing, running nose and eyes, burning of the eyes, a reddened of the exposed area, nausea, and in some cases dizziness. To relieve the burning and running eyes, wash them out with one part boric acid and three parts water. If boric acid is not available, use normal tap water. Standard eye drops can be used effectively. The next step is the treatment of the CS gas is to get the actual gas off your skin. This can be accomplished by applying mineral oil to the exposed portions of your skin. If mineral oil is unavailable, use water, but directly after you have applied the water, wipe the entire exposed area, except eyes, with alcohol. This will relieve the sting by substituting a cooling sensation. If the alcohol is not applied the stinging and burning may last up to two hours, whereas the alcohol will cut the time down to a matter of minutes. A gas mask or wet cloth or paper towel can effectively be used against this form of gas.
CN gas: This is basically the same as CS gas, but a much milder form. It comes in the same type of container and has the same type of effect, but it is not quite as unpleasant. The treatment is just washing the exposed portions with water. In most cases, the mineral oil and alcohol will not be necessary.
Nausea gas: This is an extremely dangerous gas, as it is colourless and odourless. It does not affect the tear ducts, so chances are great that a person will not even know it has been used until it's too late. It comes in the same type of containers as the CS and CN gas do. The effect this gas has is pretty bad. A person exposed to it vomits instantly on inhalation, but it is not a normal form of vomiting. It is a result of a muscle contraction and is referred to as projective vomiting. Projective vomiting is the ejection of the contents of the stomach over several feet. This can result in the ripping of the stomach or throat lining. As well as vomiting, the person experiences instant diarrhea. These are pretty disgusting symptoms, but on top of these the individual also loses the normal balance of his mind. They may find it extremely difficult to perform normal functions, such as walking or running. If a person has respiratory difficulties, they should be taken to a doctor immediately. There is not much you can do about nausea gas yourself, except wait for the symptoms to pass. If they do not disappear or become more pronounced, get to a doctor. There is no protection against this type of gas. Gas masks if worn should be taken off as soon as you realize that it is nausea gas, as you might choke on your own vomit. The only effective protection is just running like hell, and getting out of the area. Because there is no effective form of protection against nausea gas, its use is somewhat limited; since not even the president can order the wind around.
Blister gas: This is even more strange and frightening than nausea gas but, thank God, it is a great deal rarer. It causes blisters on the exposed portions of the skin: They may come up in minutes after the initial exposure or they can take up to several days to appear. This type of gas does not affect the eyes or throat, so it may be difficult to know whether the gas is being used. The only protection against it is to cover up all portions of the skin. This may include gloves, hats, bandages, long pants, etc. (Girls should never wear skirts to demonstrations.) The treatment for blisters is applying mineral oil and keeping the blistered area from the air. Try to get to a medic or doctor immediately. Anyone blistered should keep off the streets, as the cops or military will be able to identify anyone with blisters.
Mace: Mace is a liquid rather than a gas, and is used more on a person to person basis than in a crowd control. It is made up of 10% CS gas, 70% a propellant agent (Sodium Bicarbonate), and 20% Kerosene. The kerosene is the agent ingredient that causes severe burning sensations. If you have been hit with mace, you know exactly what I am talking about. It feels as if you're thrown into a blast furnace, while your eyeballs are extracted from their sockets and submerged in a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid. The pain that mace causes is intense, and this in turn causes the breakdown of normal physical and mental functions, such as running. If you are sprayed in the mouth, it may lead to uncontrolled convulsions. The treatment for a mace victim is as follows: Wash out their eyes with the same boric acid solution described in the section on CS gas above, wash all exposed portions of their body with water, then apply rubbing alcohol to dilute the kerosene and relieve the burning. The combination of Ski Goggles and a thin layer of vaseline covering the face has proven to work very well. The vaseline must be wiped off immediately after exposure.
The thing to remember is that all these gases and chemicals have been developed for use against citizens. The military was not using mace in Vietnam, but mace is being used in the cities. Millions of dollars are being spent every year to find new ways to control the people who supposedly control the government.
This part is more than likely going to kill and maim more people than all my future postings, put together, because people just refuse to take things seriously. The formulas and recipes in here are real, they can be made by almost anyone, and can be performed in the kitchen.
I offer a serious note of caution. The people in a house on 11th street (Killed in New York City early 1970s in an explosion caused by bombs they were making) did not know what they were doing. Not only did they kill themselves, but also some innocent people. Ignorance thus not only becomes fatal and inexcusable, but also criminal. If you are not absolutely sure of what you are doing. Do Not Do It. The revolution has too many martyrs as it is.
Explosives, if used with care and all the necessary precautions, are one of the greatest tools any liberation movement can have. Ninety percent of all sabotage is based on some sort of demolitions, or booby traps. The actual application of explosives can be a really thrilling and satisfying experience. This may seem strange to anyone with no experience with explosives but in many regards, it is absolutely true. An explosion is an amazing phenomenon. Coupled with the destruction of an object of popular hatred, it can become more than just a chemical reaction. It can take the shape of hope for a nation of oppressed people. It is a total sensual experience. It affects all the senses, and in primitive societies was considered a God and worshiped, if you have read about any guerrilla struggles or experienced any, you will realize that an explosion has many effects, especially when it is controlled by the oppressed group. It will confuse the enemy, cause destruction and death, impress and frighten the enemy with the power and technology of the people.
These recipes are not in this book for use by a minority. I do not place them here to be used by fringe political groups. They are included to educate, since we have already decided that ignorance is inexcusable, fatal and criminal. They are for the people, rich, poor, right and left, people of all colour, young and old. This is the type of training the forces of fascism, communism, and capitalism get. It is my belief that all of the people should have access to these skills and to be able to repel these oppressive forces.
Sometimes I wonder which side of these so-called "Liberation armies" are on, meaning that I cannot understand anyone who wishes to blow up or burn down department stores, unless they have an outstanding bill, but even then that's carrying capitalism a bit too far. The real problem comes from the fringe political factions, who at this point are so alienated from the real people of America that they think they are doing the right thing by destroying the history. All of the faction groups that cause great strife for the forces that are. No longer can the arthritic armchair politicians blame all the unrest on division. They are confused, poor bastards. The important thing to remember is that this kind of reaction is madness, but an extremely clever and dangerous form. Madness creates its own fatal hubris, and will destroy itself, but sometimes it does need a push in the right direction.
Let us take an example as an individual who wished to destroy the Roman Catholic Church. They would not only be a fool, but a murderer, if one threw a bomb into a full church on Sunday morning. A much more intelligent and effective approach to the problem would be a well-placed rumour, defaming the pope, so that the Catholic people themselves destroyed their own church. When I use the term revolution, I do not use it in the same context or with the same meaning of Che Guevara, or Lenin, or anyone else. I see "The Revolution" as a humanistic change, which may or may not incorporate violence.
A freedom fighter, whether working within or outside the system, must be a pragmatic opportunist, meaning that they must be able to see their advantages, in any situation, regardless of how bad conditions may seem at first. A freedom fighter can never surrender, for if they do, they become part of the problem. As for the guerrilla, the violent freedom fighter, there is no trial in times of trouble - just torture and death.
There are individuals in our society who claim that we cannot exist without oppression and regulation because we are children. I agree that we are children, because we have always had supervision, and have never been allowed the freedom to see ourselves in a different light. We are all children of the humanistic revolution, and whether certain individuals like it or not, we are growing up, fast.
Explosives fall into two basic classes. The first is high explosives, which include dynamite, TNT, Nitroglycerine, and plastique. The second class is low explosives, which have less of an explosive report and power than the higher class. The low explosives include smokeless powder, black powder and, other less powerful chemical reactions. Dealing with each class separately, starting first with high explosives, then moving on to the lower ones, following this I have included a very important section, that must be read. This is the safety precautions for and methods of, handling the different forms of explosives. Following safety precautions is a section on the application of demolitions and traps. I would like to make it clear that no part of this should be used without reading and studying the rest of it.
Almost all modern explosives are a derivative of a nitric acid-base. Although fuming nitric acid (98% solution in water) is not an explosive in itself, it is explosive when mixed with many other compounds. This process of mixing a compound with nitric acid chemically is called the Nitrating Principle. The best known nitrating agent is glycerin, but many others can be and are used. Mercury, Sugar, Cork, Wheat germ, Sawdust, Starch, Lard, and Indigo are all common nitrating agents and are used in modern industry. For example, when sawdust is nitrated, it becomes Nitrocellulose and is used in smokeless powder. Mercury Fulminate (Nitrated mercury) is a very powerful and effective detonator.
The next recipe is for Nitroglycerin. It is a high explosive, with an incredibly unstable nature. It can explode for the most minute reasons, such as a change of one or two degrees in temperature, or a minor shock. Because of nitroglycerin's unstable nature, I would suggest that only people with an extensive background and training in both chemistry and explosives try this procedure.
- Fill a 75-millilitre beaker, to the 13-ml level, with fuming red nitric acid, of 98 percent concentration.
- Place a beaker in an ice bath and allow it to cool below room temperature.
- After it is cooled, add to it three times the amount of fuming sulfuric acid (99 Percent H2SO4). In other words, add to the now-cool fuming nitric acid 39 millilitres of fuming sulfuric acid. When mixing any acids, always do it slowly and carefully to avoid splattering.
- When the two are mixed, lower their temperature, by adding more ice to the bath, to about 10 or 15 degrees Centigrade. This can be measured by using a mercury operated Centigrade thermometer.
- When the acid solution has cooled to the desired temperature, it is ready for the glycerin. The glycerin must be added in small amounts using a medicine dropper. Glycerin is added, slowly and carefully, until the entire surface of acid is covered with it.
- This is a dangerous point, since the nitration will take place as soon as the glycerin is added. The nitration will produce heat, so the solution must be kept below 30 degrees C. If the solution should go above 30 degrees, the beaker should be taken out of the ice bath and the solution should be carefully poured directly into the ice bath, since this will prevent an explosion.
- For about the first ten minutes of the nitration, the mixture should be gently stirred. In a normal reaction, the nitroglycerin will form as a layer on top of the acid solution, while the sulfuric acid will absorb the excess water.
- After the nitration has taken place and the nitroglycerin has formed at the top of the solution, the entire beaker should be transferred very slowly and carefully to another beaker of water. When this is done, the nitroglycerin will settle to the bottom so that most of the acid solution can be drained away.
- After removing as much acid as possible without disturbing the nitroglycerin, remove the nitroglycerin with an eyedropper and place it in a bicarbonate of soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) solution. The sodium bicarbonate is an alkali and will neutralize much of the acid remaining. This process should be repeated as many times as necessary using blue litmus paper to check for the presence of acid. The remaining acid only makes the nitroglycerin more unstable than it normally is.
- The final step is to remove the nitroglycerin from the bicarbonate. This is done with an eyedropper, slowly and carefully the usual test to see if nitration has been successful is to place one drop of the nitroglycerin on a metal plate and ignite it. If it is true nitroglycerin, it will burn with a clear blue flame.
Caution: Nitroglycerin is extremely sensitive to decomposition, heating, dropping, or jarring, and may explode if left undisturbed and cool. Know what you are doing before you do it.
When employing the use of any high explosive, an individual must also use some kind of detonating device. Blasting caps are probably the most popular today, since they are very functional and relatively stable. The prime ingredient in most blasting caps and detonating devices, in general, is mercury fulminate. There are several methods for preparing mercury fulminate.
Method No. 1 for preparation of Mercury Fulminate:
- take 5 grams of pure mercury and mix it with 35ml of nitric acid.
- the mixture is slowly and gently heated. As soon as the solution bubbles and turns green. one knows that the silver mercury is dissolved.
- after it is dissolved, the solution should be poured, slowly, into a small flask of ethyl alcohol. This will result in red fumes.
- After a half-hour or so, the red fumes will turn white, indicating that the process is nearing its final stage.
- After a few minutes, add distilled water to the solution.
- the entire solution is now filtered, in order to obtain the small white crystals. These crystals are pure mercury fulminate, but should be washed many times, and tested with litmus paper for any remaining undesirable acid.
Method No. 2 for preparation of Mercury Fulminate:
- Mix one part mercuric oxide with ten parts ammonia solution. When ratios are described, they are always done according to weight rather than volume.
- After waiting eight to ten days, one will see that the mercuric oxide has reacted with the ammonia solution to produce the white fulminate crystals.
- These crystals must be handled the same way as the first method described, in that they must be washed many times and given several litmus paper tests.
Many other Fulminates can be made in the same manner as above, but I will not go into these, since most are extremely unstable and sensitive to shock. All Fulminates, including Mercury Fulminate, are sensitive to shock and friction, and in no circumstances should they be handled in a rough or careless manner.
One of the nearly perfect explosive compounds, in the sense of chemical combustion rather than stability, is blasting gelatin. This was discovered by Nobel, and is a very primitive form of plastique, as we know it today. It is made by mixing a small amount of Nitrocellulose (Nitrated sawdust) with a larger amount of Nitroglycerin. This creates a stiff, plastic substance that has power as an explosive greater than either of its ingredients. A person attempting to make this should use 92 percent Nitroglycerin and 8 percent Nitrocellulose, and pray, if you don't want to mess with making Nitrocellulose and have access to Guncotton, it can be substituted. Any recipe listed which employs unstable or sensitive explosive compounds such as Nitroglycerin should be left alone by all those who do not have access to a laboratory or previous training. This article is not enough training to mess with these compounds.
FORMULAS FOR STRAIGHT DYNAMITE SERIES
Probably one of the single greatest breakthroughs in explosives came by accident, when Nobel discovered a primitive form of dynamite. One of the primary ingredients of the dynamite is Nitroglycerin, which has great explosive power, although it has the disadvantage of being ultrasensitive to heat and shock. What dynamite does is to combine the high explosive power of nitroglycerin with a stabilizing agent, to render it powerful but safely usable. Nobel developed what is called today the straight dynamite series, which is nothing more than Nitroglycerin and a stabilizing agent. The most common straight Dynamite formula follow (Nitroglycerin will be referred to as NG):
- NG = 32
Sodium Nitrate = 28
Woodmeal = 10
Ammonium Oxalate = 29
Guncotton = 1
- NG = 24
Potassium Nitrate = 9
Sodium Nitrate = 56
Woodmeal = 9
Ammonium Oxalate = 2
- NG = 35.5
Potassium Nitrate = 44.5
Woodmeal = 6
Guncotton = 2.5
Vaseline = 5.5
Powdered Charcoal = 6
- NG = 25
Potassium Nitrate = 26
Woodmeal = 34
Barium Nitrate = 5
Starch = 10
- NG = 57
Potassium Nitrate = 19
Woodmeal = 9
Ammonium Oxalate = 12
Guncotton = 3
- NG = 18
Sodium Nitrate = 70
Woodmeal = 5.5
Potassium Chloride = 4.5
Chalk = 2
- NG = 26
Woodmeal = 40
Barium Nitrate = 32
Sodium Carbonate = 2
- NG = 44
Woodmeal = 12
Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate = 44
- NG = 24
Potassium Nitrate = 32.5
Ammonium Oxalate 10
- NG = 26
Potassium Nitrate = 33
Woodmeal = 41
- NG = 15
Sodium Nitrate = 62.9
Woodmeal = 21.2
Sodium Carbonate = 0.9
- NG = 35
Sodium Nitrate = 37
Woodmeal = 27
Ammonium Oxalate = 1
- NG = 32
Potassium Nitrate = 27
Woodmeal = 10
Ammonium Oxalate = 30
- NG = 33
Woodmeal = 10.3
Ammonium Oxalate = 29
Guncotton = 0.7
Potassium Perchloride = 27
- NG = 40
Sodium Nitrate = 45
Woodmeal = 15
- NG = 47
Starch = 50
Guncotton = 3
- NG = 30
Sodium Nitrate = 22.3
Woodmeal = 40.5
Potassium Chloride = 7.2
- NG = 50
Sodium Nitrate = 32.6
Woodmeal = 17
Ammonium Oxalate = 0.4
- NG = 23
Potassium Nitrate = 27.5
Woodmeal = 37
Ammonium Oxalate = 8
Barium Nitrate = 4
Calcium Carbonate = 0.5
The figures are percentage parts, adding up to a sum of 100 percent. Percent parts are always based on a weight ratio rather than volume. When preparing any high-explosive formula, be sure you know what you are doing. Having the correct equipment, and the correct chemicals. Many of these chemicals are sold under brand names, which are more familiar than their chemical names, but before assuming anything read the ingredients and take nothing for granted.
These formulas listed are for straight dynamite. Straight dynamite is a very primitive form of what we know today as dynamite. Later ammonium Nitrate was added to dynamite. This substance produced a greater explosive action but less velocity. The intensification of the explosive action results because Ammonium Nitrate has not only been used in dynamite, but also in many other different explosive compounds including NG. Picric acid, and coal dust. Ammonium Nitrate when Mixed with these substances creates the cheapest form of high explosive known to man.
FORMULAS FOR BLACK POWDER
Gunpowder is the great-grandaddy of all the rest of the high and low powered explosives, and still to this day is one of the most important explosives. As with all the rest of the explosive formulas, it seems everyone has their own recipe, which they claim to be the best.
Here is a collection of 11 of the safer, more functional, methods of preparing Gunpowder. The most important thing to remember when dealing with black powder is its incredible sensitivity to sparks
Note: A cook, a book does not make.
- Potassium Perchlorate = 69.2
Sulfur = 15.4
Charcoal = 15.4
- Potassium Nitrate = 70.4
Sulfur = 19.4
Sodium Sulfate = 10.2
- Potassium Nitrate = 64
Sulfur = 12
Lampblack = 7
Sawdust = 17
- Potassium Nitrate = 50
Ammonium Perchlorate = 25
Powdered Willow Charcoal = 12.5
- Barium Nitrate = 75
Sulfur = 12.5
Charcoal = 12.5
- Sodium Peroxide = 67
Sodium Thiosulphate = 33
- Potassium Chlorate = 75
Charcoal = 12.5
Sulfur = 12.5
- Potassium Nitrate = 79
Sulfur = 3
Straw Charcoal = 18
- Potassium Nitrate = 70.6
Antimony Sulfate = 5.9
- Potassium Nitrate = 37.5
Starch = 37.5
Sulfur = 18.75
Antimony Powder = 6.25
- Guanidine Nitrate = 49
Potassium Nitrate = 40
Charcoal = 11
When preparing black powder for use in firearms, it is important to keep in mind that these formulas are more powerful than ordinary Potassium Nitrate Gunpowder, and for that reason, smaller quantities should be used. The correct amount can only be discovered by trial-and-error experimentation, but caution must be taken to prevent overloading.
Although black powder is one of the safest explosives, it has its disadvantages: It is extremely sensitive to sparks; and it leaves a messy residue in gun barrels, which necessitates frequent cleaning. The advantage of smokeless powder is that it is an extremely stable high powered explosive in the low explosives class, which gives off only gaseous products upon explosion. The first type of smokeless powder used by the army was basically the Nitrocellulose with a small amount of Diphenylamine, for stabilizer. Smokeless powder is perhaps the safest of any explosive compound discussed, and for that reason is extremely popular today.
- Boil cotton for 30 minutes, in a 2 percent solution of Sodium Hydroxide.
- Wash the cotton in hot water and allow it to dry.
- Mix slowly and carefully at 25 degrees Centigrade, 250 cc. of concentrated sulfuric acid, 150 cc. of concentrated Nitric acid, and 20 cc. of water. They must be kept at 25 degrees C.
- Next place the dried cotton in the acid solution, and stir well with either a glass or porcelain rod (Do not use metal). This should be done for 35 minutes.
- After Nitration, the acids are washed away, and the cotton is washed in boiling water five times, each time for 25 minutes, the cotton is given several tests with litmus paper. If the litmus paper proves that there is still some acid present, a 2 percent solution of sodium bicarbonate should neutralize whatever is left. This is important, since any remaining acid acts as an impurity to make the explosive more unstable.
Probably the most hazardous explosive compound of all is Nitrogen Tri-iodide. Strangely enough, it is very popular with highschool chemists, who do not have the vaguest idea of what they are doing. The reason for its popularity may be the ready availability of the ingredients, but it is so sensitive to friction that a fly landing on it, has been known to detonate it. The recipe has only been included as a warning and as a curiosity. It should not be used.
Preparation for making Nitrogen Tri-iodide:
- Add a small amount of solid iodine crystals to about 20 cc. of concentrated Ammonium Hydroxide. This operation must be performed very slowly, until a brownish-red precipitate is formed.
- Now it is filtered through filter paper, and then washed first with alcohol and secondly with ether.
Tri-iodide must remain wet, since when it dries it becomes supersensitive to friction, and a slight touch can set it off. This is an extremely unstable compound and should not be experimented with.
DIFFERENT COLORED SMOKE SCREENS
An interesting aspect of explosives is the extra ingredients that can be added to give the explosion characteristics it would not normally have. A smoke bomb is like this, in the sense that it is not only useful to create confusion and chaos, but also for smoking persons out of an enclosed area, as well as signalling.
BLACK SMOKE SCREEN
- Magnesium Powder = 19
Hexachloroethane = 60
Naphthalene = 21
- Magnesium Powder = 20
Hexachloroethane = 60
Naphthalene = 20
- Hexachloroethane = 55.8
Alpha Naphol = 14
Athracene = 4.6
Aluminum powder = 9.3
Smokeless powder = 14
Naphthalene = 2.3
- Black Powder FFF = 50
Potassium Nitrate = 10
Coal Tar = 20
Powdered Charcoal = 15
Paraffin = 5
WHITE SMOKE SCREEN
- Potassium Chlorate = 44
Sulfur Flour = 15
Zine Dust = 40
Sodium Bicarbonate = 1
- Zine Dust = 28
Zine Oxide = 22
Hexachloroethane = 50
- Zinc Dust = 66.67
Hexachloroethane = 33.33
YELLOW SMOKE SCREEN
- Potassium Chlorate = 25
Paranitraniline = 50
Lactrose = 25
- Potassium Chlorate = 30
Naphthalene Azodimethyl Aniline = 50
Powdered Sugar = 20
- Potassium Chlorate = 21.4
Naphthalene Azodimethyl Aniline = 2.7
Auramine = 38
Sodium Bicarbonate = 28.5
Sulfur Flour = 9.4
GREEN SMOKE SCREEN
- Potassium Nitrate = 20
Red Arsenic = 20
Sulfur Flour = 20
Antimony Sulfide = 20
Black Powder FFF = 20
RED SMOKE SCREEN
- Potassium Chlorate = 20
Lactose = 20
Paranitraniline red = 60
- Potassium Chlorate = 26
Diethylaminorosindone = 48
Powdered Sugar = 26
- Potassium Chlorate = 27.4
Methylaminoanthraquinone = 42.5
Sodium Bicarbonate = 19.5
Sulfur Flour = 10.6
- Potassium Perchlorate = 25
Antimony Sulfide = 20
Rhodamine red = 50
Dextrin = 5
Up next, the most important in this. More people, young and old, political and apolitical, have executed themselves with some form of explosives that I could care to state here. The safety procedures for all explosives are nothing more than common sense and reasoning. Yes, smokeless powder is stable, but if you put it in the oven, it will explode. Plastique is a very stable explosive compound, but it needs to be softened before use, Just not with a hammer. TNT can be burned and it will not explode - most of the time, whereas gunpowder will ignite with the smallest spark.
Moral: Read the next part and study them, do not assume anything.
- The most important factor in picking a storage place is its location. You will want the place close enough to be under your surveillance, but not close enough to be a hazard to you or your family. All explosive magazines or dumps must have secure locks on all the doors.
- Do not store blasting caps, electrical caps, or primers in the same container or even in the same magazine with any other form of high or low explosives.
- Do not store fuses or fuse lighters in a wet or damp place, or near the storage of flammables such as oil, gasoline, cleaning solvents, or paints. Fuses should also be kept away from radiators, steam pipes, stoves, or any other source of heat, because the very nature of nonelectrical fuses is that any one of these things could start a large fire.
- Metals should be kept absolutely away from explosives, meaning that metal tools should not be stored in the same magazine with explosives.
- In no circumstances, allow any open flame or any other fire, including a lighted cigarette, around an explosive storage dump.
- Spontaneous combustion is a real problem when storing explosives. For this reason, Do not allow leaves, grasses brush or, any debris to collect or accumulate around the explosives storage area.
- Do not discharge weapons near an explosives magazine. Do not shoot into the storage dump. Keep the shotting away from the explosives.
- Certain types of explosives require certain types of storage, including temperature regulation and other controls. Be sure that you understand all aspects of the compound's nature before handling or storing it.
- At all times use common sense, and allow only qualified persons to be near or handle explosives.
- When transporting explosives, know what the federal and state laws and regulations are. Many of these regulations are just common sense protection for yourself.
- Make sure that any vehicle used to transport explosives is in proper working order equipped with a tight wooden or nonsparking metal floor, with sides and ends high enough to prevent the explosives from falling off. The load in an open-bodied truck should be covered with a waterproof and fire-resistant tarpaulin. Wiring should be fully insulated so as to prevent short-circuiting, and at least two fire extinguishers should be carried. The truck should be plainly marked, if possible.
- In no circumstances allow metals of any sort, except the nonsparking type, to come into contact with the explosive casing. Metal, flammable, or corrosive substances should not be transported with explosives.
- Never under any circumstances allow smoking around any explosive regardless of stability.
- Do not allow unauthorized persons to go near the explosives. This is for two reasons; first, because they might not know what they are doing and accidentally set off an explosion, and secondly, because they might be undercover agents from the enemy.
- When loading or unloading explosives, do it with the utmost care. Whenever dealing with explosives in any capacity, do not rush. Take your time and exercise extreme caution.
- If you must transport both high explosives and blasting caps in the same vehicle, be sure that they are completely separate from one another.
SAFETY WHEN USING
- When opening a case of explosives, in no circumstances use a metal crowbar or wedge. Use a wooden wedge or nonmetallic tool.
- Do not smoke or allow anyone to smoke. Do not carry an open flame, or any other form of heat source or fire near an area where explosives are being used.
- Do not place explosives where they may be exposed to a flame, excessive heat, sparks, or shock.
- Replace the cover or close the top of the explosives container after use.
- Do not carry explosives in your pocket or on your person at any time. Even when on a mission of sabotage, it is better to carry explosives in a separate container.
- When making up primers or crimping blasting caps, do not do it near any other explosives, high or low.
- Blasting caps, although they may look like firecrackers, are a powerful explosive charge and must be treated accordingly.
- Never insert anything but a fuse into a blasting cap. Since blasting caps, to be functional, must be sensitive, a great degree of care must be used in handling them.
- Never experiment with, disassemble, strike, tamper with, or in any way ty to remove the contents of a blasting cap. Do not try to pull the wires out of an electrical blasting cap.
- When handling explosives, the only persons who should be present are those who are absolutely necessary. All unnecessary and unauthorized persons should be cleared from the area. This, of course, includes animals and children.
- Do not handle explosives, or stay in an area where explosives are being stored, when an electrical storm is approaching. Clear the area and retire to safety.
- Inspect all equipment before use, and never use any equipment that appears damaged or deteriorated.
- Never attempt to reclaim any explosive or blasting material that has been water-soaked.
SAFETY DETONATING ELECTRICALLY
- Do not uncoil the wires of an electrical blasting cap, or employ their use, during a thunderstorm, dust storm, or when any other source of static electricity is present.
- Be very careful about the use of electrical blasting material near a radio frequency transmitter. Consult Radio Frequency Hazards, a pamphlet issued by the Institute of Makers of Explosives.
- Keep your firing circuit completely insulated from all conductors except the one circuit you intend to use. This means extreme care in insulation against the ground, bare wires, rails, pipes, or any paths of stray current.
- Keep all cables, wires or other electrical equipment away from electrical blasting caps, except at the time of the blast, and for the purpose of that blast.
- Be very careful in the use of more than one blasting cap. Never use more than one type of blasting cap in a single operation.
- Use the correct current stated by the manufacturer to set off the electrical blasting caps. Never use any less.
- Be sure that all of the ends of the wires which are to be connected are bright and clean.
- Keep the electrical cap wires or lead wires short-circuited until ready to fire.
SAFETY WHEN USING A FUSE
- Handle the fuse carefully. Avoid damaging the covering. In cold weather, warm the fuse slightly before using it. Avoid cracking the waterproof outer coating.
- Never use a short fuse. Always use a fuse that is over two feet in length. Be absolutely sure you know the burning speed of the fuse, and have calculated the amount of time you will need to get to safety.
- When placing the fuse in the blasting cap, cut off an inch or so to ensure dryness. Cut straight across the fuse with a clean new razor blade. Once the fuse is in place, do not twist, pull or otherwise cause friction.
- Once the fuse is in place, it is necessary to crimp the fuse into the blasting cap. Crimping is the procedure of attaching a nonelectrical blasting cap to a fuse, by bending the ends of the cap around the fuse. This must be done only with a special tool, called a crimper. Although crimpers may look like pliers they are not, and pliers must not be used. When crimping, be absolutely sure you know what you are doing, since, if you squeeze the explosive within the cap rather than the ends, there is a good chance you will blow your handoff.
- Do not light the fuse until you are sure that the sparks that come from it will not set off the explosive the fuse has burned down.
SAFETY WHEN FIRING
- Never hold an explosive in your hands when lighting.
- Before exploding any charge, make sure a complete check of the area has been made, and sufficient time and warning have been given.
- Do not return to the area of the blast until all the smoke has cleared.
- Do not attempt to investigate a misfire too soon. Wait at least one hour, and be sure, if you are using an electrical circuit, that you have disconnected it.
- Never drill out misfires.
- Never abandon any explosives.
- Do not leave any explosive equipment, packing material, or empty cartridges where children or animals can get at them.
BASIC FORMULAS FOR DEMOLITIONS USE
- Computation of minimum safety distance
For charges less than 27 pounds, the minimum safety distance is 900 feet. Over 27 pounds the minimum safety distance can be figured by using the following formula:
- Steel cutting
When cutting, with explosives, part of a steel structure, determine the area in square inches of the member to be cut. This area is then labelled "A," and one can use the following formula
- Steel cutting
When a steel member is not part of a creature structure, a different formula is used. This is based on the diameter of the individual member.
- Train Rails
To cut rails that weigh less than 80 pounds, use one-half pound of explosives. To cut rails that weigh over 80 pounds, use a full pound of explosives.
- Timber cutting
When the charge is to be external and untamped, the formula is as follows:
P = the pounds of explosives required, and C equals the circumference of the tree in feet (This formula is given for plastique). When figuring an internal tamped charge, the formula is as follows:
P = the pounds of explosives, and D equals the diameter of the tree in inches.
Some important principles
A basic rule to follow in all calculations having to do with explosive compounds is to round off the amount to the next highest unit package. At times you may use a little more than necessary, but you will be assured of success. Another rule when calculating charges is to add one-third more explosives if you do not intend to tamp. If a formula is given for plastique (Composition 4), As was done for both timber-cutting formulas, you are able to compute poundage in TNT by adding one-third to the weight of the plastique.
When using the principle of catering to destroy a paved surface with explosives, use several charges rather than just one. The use of a borehole is especially effective here. It is pointless to attempt catering a roadway without tamping, since most of the destructive force of your charge will go straight up into the air.
In the next section, I intend to go into their specific application. Bombs like spies, have no allegiance, even to their creators.
Bombs and booby traps incorporate more than just technical knowledge, they are based on human nature. To create an effective booby trap, one must have a primitive insight into the enemy's actions, thoughts, and methods. Before I get into the nitty-gritty of construction booby traps, bombs, land mines, grenades, etc., it is important to explain the basic working principles and mechanisms behind these devices. In the acquisition of equipment, I would recommend purchasing or stealing, rather than making your own. Manufactured equipment is much safer to work with, and usually more effective. Once you have your explosive compound, you will need a way to set it off, or detonate it. With all high explosives, you will need a detonator or blasting cap, unless you decide to lace the fuse into the explosive, although this is not recommended. A blasting cap is a low explosive compound that is connected to a high explosive for the purpose of detonating it. There are two types of blasting caps - electric and nonelectric.
To use a nonelectrical blasting cap, one gently pushes the fuse into the hollow end, until it is fully in. They then crimp the hollow metal end around the fuse and puts it into the high explosive. When the fuse burns down, it ignites the flash charge. That in turn explodes the priming charge which detonates the base charge, finally creates enough heat to set off the high-explosive charge. The fuse is an ordinary safety fuse or detonating cord.
When the fuse is put into the blasting cap, it is necessary to seal it. This act of sealing is called crimping. When involved with this sort of thing, one must use the standard safety precautions set down in the previous section. Crimpers look like a pair of pliers, and their function is very similar, although pliers cannot be used for crimping. With the crimper in your right hand and the blasting cap in your left, slowly squeeze the hollow end of the blasting cap until it is firmly against the fuse. Use care so that you do not squeeze the charge within the cap, as this may detonate it.
Whereas nonelectrical blasting caps are functional and have proven that they can be relied on, electrical blasting caps offer a much greater variety of uses. The basic principle of the electrical blasting cap is that an electrical charge moves through an insulated wire until it reaches a small section of that same wire which is not insulated and which is surrounded by a primary flash charge. The heat from the electrical charge will explode the flash charge, which in turn will set off a series of minor explosions, finishing up with the high explosive.
Both types of blasting caps should be placed within the high explosive itself. This is easy when working with plastique or pliable substance. Manufactured TNT has a small hole designed at the top for just this reason, but in dynamite, one has to make his own hole. This hole should be made with a wooden or nonsparking metal object. The ends of the crimpers, illustrated in Figure 74, are ideal. The hole can be made in one of two ways: The first is bored carefully and gently straight down from the top of the stick to exactly the length of the cap itself; the second type of hole is made from the side in a downward diagonal direction. Both of these methods have proven effective.
Tamping is nothing more than an operation performed before the explosion, to regulate and direct the destructive power of the explosion. In other words, if a pound of black powder is ignited with a match, the explosion will occur but most of the destructive force will now take the path of least resistance - into the atmosphere. Now if the same pound of black powder is placed within a steel pipe, and sealed at both ends, except for a tiny hole for the fuse, the explosion could be regulated with ease. This tamping operation is necessary for any form of demolition in order that the operation be successful. A stick of dynamite placed on a concrete roadway untamped, when exploded will create a very small crater, perhaps a few inches. If this same stick of dynamite were tamped, by placing several sandbags on top of it and around it, the explosion would create a much greater crater. This tamping operation is absolutely necessary for the demolition of a large structure or building.
- When attempting to sever a steel rod or pole, through the use of explosives, place a charge on each side leaving a small gap between the butts of the explosives
- When cutting a chain place the explosive charge on one side and tape it securely into place.
- When cutting any odd-shaped object, the best explosive to use is plastique, because of its flexibility. It is especially useful and effective when cutting heavy metal cables. The compound should be placed around the side of the cable that is to be cut, about half an inch thick.
When sabotaging railroad tracks with explosives, use plastique if available, since this has the easiest substance to use when trying to sever objects of irregular shapes. The most common way of cutting train tracks is by placing a charge of high explosive on either side of the "I" Beam track, so as to have the forces of the two explosions act upon each other, thus causing the middle object maximum destruction. Another method which has proven equally effective is placing a charge between the rail and the switch. The switch is one of the weakest points along the line, and a relatively small charge will not only sever the switch and rail, but will also rip up the ties and the railroad bet. Tamping with sandbags can an should be used if at all possible since the extent of the damages is multiplied several times by the addition of the sandbags. Tamping can be useless if you are on a silent lightning-fast mission.
Continued in Part 2: https://freenet.space/read-blog/141_chemical-anarchy-pt-2.htm